A hard water softener is an appliance that uses sodium chloride, also known as salt, to treat hard water. Hard water contains an excess of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, manganese, and iron that can be an expensive nuisance for a home. These minerals are taken up in the underground water supply and, as the water is heated in the home, they crystallize and stick to household surfaces. Sodium chloride, the effective component of water softener, works to replace these unwanted minerals.
A water softener is a fairly simple appliance that is stocked with salt. In water softening process the water supply passes through the water softener over resin beds, rows of resin beads perform an ion-exchange. The resin beads chemically attract the unwanted ‘hard’ mineral ions and exchange them with sodium ions. Softener resin is mainly strong acid Cation resin. When the resin beds become saturated with the minerals, the water softener flushes them out with a salt solution called brine and the process begins again. Water softeners are fairly easy to operate and maintain. All that needs to be done after installation is to periodically add sodium chloride and the water softener does the rest.